Bonaventura Berlinghieri, panel from the St. Francis Altarpiece, 1235
Bonaventura Berlinghieri’s, panel from the St. Francis Altarpiece, 1235, reflects a more stylized form of the middle ages, the Byzantine style. Many things contribute to this such as the frontal pose of Saint Francis. The use of gold leaf also reflects Byzantine influences because it emphasizes flatness and contributes more to spirituality. This flatness of the figures was done to make them appear more holy and not of this world. Another example of Byzantine influence is the frontal poses of the two angels around the Saint and a lack of modeling in the figures. This lack of modeling was not because artists at this time did not know how to paint realistic. The Byzantine style does not have realistic figures because artists wanted the painting/image to be more sacred, more spiritual. The subject matter of this painting also seems to have influences from Byzantine illuminated manuscripts.